The Shaftesbury Project

Reception of Shaftesbury's Works 1700-1850

Corrections and suggestions always welcome; please send to



[DAY, Henry.] Free Thoughts in Defence of a Future State, as Discoverable by Natural Reason, and Stript of All Superstitious Appendages. Demonstrating against the Nominal Deists, That the Consideration of Future Advantages is a Just Motive to Virtue; of Future Loss and Misery, a Powerful and Becoming Restraint of Vice. With Occasional Remarks on a Book Intituled, ‘An Inquiry Concerning Virtue’. And a Refutation of the Reviv’d Hylozoicism of Democritus and Leucippus. London, 1700. Usually attributed to Robert Day, but advertised by the bookseller John Darby as the work of one Henry Day.

[FOWLER, Edward.] Remarks upon the Letter to a Lord, concerning Enthusiasm. London,1708. See ALDRIDGE (1951), 371.

[BASNAGE, Jacques.] Histoire des Ouvrages des Savans, Mois d’Octobre, Novembre Decembre, 1708, (Rotterdam, 1708), Article IX (December), 534-42. Review of A Letter concerning Enthusiasm, with a brief reference in the heading to the 1709 French translation.

[ANON.] A Letter to the Reverend Doctor Moss, in Behalf of the Rights of the Christian Church. Together with a Poetick Rhapsody. By an Oxford-Scholar. London, 1709. Two issues, slight variations in titles.

[ANON.] Reflections upon a Letter concerning Enthusiasm, to my Lord *****. London, 1709.

[ASTELL, Mary.] Bart’lemy Fair: or, An enquiry after Wit; In Which Due Respect is Had to A Letter concerning Enthusiasm, to my Lord ***. By Mr. Wotton. London, 1709. 2nd edn 1722: An Enquiry after Wit.

JENKIN, Robert. Remarks on Some Books Lately Publish’d. London, 1709.

LE CLERC, Jean. Bibliothèque choisie, 19 (1709), 427-38: reviews of A Letter concerning Enthusiasm (429-31), of The Moralists (431-6), and of Sensus Communis (436-8). Ibid. 21 (1710), 177-97: a review of Soliloquy (with a French translation of some passages from the original). Ibid. 23 (1711), 89-168, a discussion of the two remaining treatises in the 1711 Characteristicks: Inquiry (90-144) and Miscellaneous Reflections (145-68), both with lengthy extracts in French.

[PARKER, Samuel.] Censura temporum. London, 1709-10, pp. 566-74; 579-81.

Journal des Sçavans, 1709, 450-58 (xii, 25 Mars). Review of 1709 French translation of Lettre sur l'Entousiasme.

Journal des Sçavans, 1710, 207-8 (xiii, 31 Mars); 251-3 (xvi, 21 Avril). Review of 1709 French translation of Sensus Communis.

Collections of Passages Referr’d to by Dr. Henry Sacheverell in his Answer to the Articles of his Impeachment. (London, 1710), pp. 22-23.

Nouvelles de la République des Lettres, March 1710, 345-52. Review of the French translation of Sensus Communis.

LE CLERC, Jean. Extract and Judgment of the Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times. London, 1712. Translation of Le Clerc’s reviews.

Histoire critique de la République des Lettres, tant ancienne que moderne, 1715, 337-41. Review of Characteristicks (2nd edn).

[GILDON, Charles.] Remarks on Mr. Rowe’s Tragedy of Lady Jane Gray ... to Which is Prefix’d a Prefatory Discourse in Defence of Criticism in General, from the Works of the Earl of Shaftsbury. London, 1715.

LEIBNIZ, Gottfried Wilhelm. “Eloges critique des Oeuvres de Milord Shaftsbury.” Histoire critique de la République des lettres, tant ancienne que moderne, 10 (1715), 306-27.

Nouvelles de la République des Lettres, November and December 1716, 762-67. Review of Several Letters Written by a Noble Lord to a Young Man at the University.

LEIBNIZ, Gottfried Wilhem. “Remarques sur un petit Livre traduit de l’Anglois, intitulé Lettre sur l’Enthousiasme.” Recueil de diverses pièces, sur la philosophie, la religion naturelle, l’histoire, les mathématiques, par Mrs. Leibniz, Clarke, Newton & autres auteurs célèbres. Amsterdam, 1720, II, 245-68.

LEIBNIZ, Gottfried Wilhelm. “Jugement sur les œuvres de M. le Comte de Shaftsbury.” Recueil de diverses pièces, sur la philosophie, sur la religion naturelle, l’histoire, les mathématiques, par Mrs. Leibniz, Clarke, Newton & autres auteurs célèbres. Amsterdam, 1720, II, 269-86.

[MANDEVILLE, Bernard de.] The Fable of the Bees. London, 1723 (2nd edn).

FIDDES, Richard. A General Treatise of Morality, Form’d upon the Principles of Natural Reason only. With a Preface in Answer to Two Essays Lately Published in the ‘Fable of the Bees’. And Some Incidental Remarks upon an ‘Inquiry Concerning Virtue’, by the Right Honourable Anthony Earl of Shaftsbury. London, 1724.

HUTCHESON, Francis. An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue ... In Which the Principles of the Late Earl of Shaftesbury are Explain’d and Defended, against the Author of the ‘Fable of the Bees’. London, 1725.

[BALGUY, John.] A letter to a Deist, concerning the Beauty and Excellency of Moral Virtue, and the Support and Improvement Which it Receives from the Christian Religion. By a Country Clergyman. London, 1726.

YOUNG, Edward. A Poem Occasion’d by Reading Shaftsbury’s Characteristicks, Referr’d to the Consideration of the Author of a Book, Entitled, ‘The Scheme of Literal Prophecy Consider’d’. London, 1727.

BENSON, George. The End and Design of Prayer, or, the Reasonableness of Praying to an Unchangeably Wise, Powerful, and Good God. In Answer to the Objections of the Late Earl of Rochester, Mr. Blount, My Lord Shaftsbury, and Other Modern Deists. In a Letter to a Friend. London, 1731.

BERKELEY, George. Alciphron, or, The Minute Philosopher. In Seven Dialogues. Containing an Apology for the Christian Religion, against Those Who are Called Free-Thinkers. London, 1732.

[PITT, James.] “A Vindication of Lord Shaftsbury’s Writings and Character; against the Author of a Book, Called, Alciphron, or The Minute Philosopher” and “The Vindication of Lord Shaftsbury’s Writings Continued,” The London Journal Nos 676 and 677, 10 and 17 June 1732.

WISHART, William. A Vindication of the Reverend D--B--y, from the Scandalous Imputation of being Author of ... Alciphron ... To which is Subjoined, the Predictions of the Earl of Shaftesbury. London, 1734.

[ANON.] St. Paul and Shaftsbury: or, The Doctrine of Deism confuted, by the Reasoning of that Apostle. Dublin, 1734.

[SMITH, Elisha.] The Cure of Deism, or: The Mediatorial Scheme of Jesus Christ the only True Religion ... In Answer to the Objections Started ... by the Author of ‘Christianity as Old as Creation’; and the author of the ‘Characteristicks’. London, 1736.

BIRCH, Thomas. “Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of).” In: Pierre Bayle, A General Dictionary, Historical and Critical (London, 1739), IX, 179-86.

TURNBULL, George. The Principles of Moral Philosophy. An Enquiry into the Wise and Good Government of the Moral World. London, 1740.

TURNBULL, George. Three Disssertations ... To which is Added, Some Reflections on the Characters of Augustus, Maecenas and Horace, and on the Works of Horace, by the Earl of Shaftsbury. London, 1740.

[SKELTON, Philip.] Ophiomaches: or, Deism revealed. London, 1749 (2nd edn Deism Revealed, 1751).

back to top


BROWN, John. Essays on the Characteristics. London, 1751.

[BULKLEY, Charles.] A Vindication of my Lord Shaftesbury, on the Subject of Ridicule. Being Remarks upon a Book Intitled, ‘Essays on the Characteristics’. London, 1751.

[BULKLEY, Charles.] A Vindication of my Lord Shaftesbury, on The Subjects of Morality and Religion. Being farther Remarks on a Book Intitled, ‘Essays on the Characteristics’. London, 1752.

ALBERTI, Georg Wilhelm. Briefe betreffend den allerneuesten Zustand der Religion und der Wissenschaften in Gross-Britannien. Hannover, 1752-1754.

OETINGER, F. C. Die Wahrheit des Sensus Communis. Stuttgart, 1753.

LELAND, John. A View of the Principal Deistical Writers that Have Appeared in England in the Last and Present Century. London, 1754.

LELAND, John. Abriss der vornehmsten deistischen Schriften, die in dem vorigen und gegenwärtigen Jahrhunderte in Engeland bekannt geworden sind, transl. H. G. Schmid. Hannover, 1756.

[MANDEVILLE, Bernard de.] Anti-Shaftesbury oder die entlarvte Eitelkeit der Selbstliebe und Ruhmsucht, transl. J. G. von Freystein. Frankfurt, 1761.

HUTCHESON, Francis. Untersuchung unsrer Begriffe von Schönheit und Tugend in zwo Abhandlungen, transl. J. H. Merck. Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1762.

HURD, Richard. Dialogues on the Uses of Foreign Travel, Considered as a Part of an English Gentleman’s Education: between Lord Shaftesbury and Mr. Locke. London, 1764.

WIELAND, Christoph Martin. “Des Grafen von Shaftesbury philosophische Werke.” Teutscher Merkur 1777, 1. Viertelj., 201-2. Review of 1776 German translation (vol. I only).

TIEDEMANN, Dieterich. “Des Grafen von Shaftesbury philosophische Werke”. Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek 30,2 (1777), 530-2. Review of 1776 German translation (vol. I only).

[ANON.] “Des Grafen von Shaftesbury philosophische Werke.” Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek, Suppl. 25-36, 2 (1780), 1046-8. Review of German translation (vol. II, 1777).

OGILVIE, John. Inquiry into the Causes of the Infidelity and Ccepticism of the Times: with Occasional Observations on the Writings of Herbert, Shaftesbury, Bolingbroke, Hume, Gibbon, Toulmin, &c. &c. London, 1783.

SCHLOSSER, Johann Georg. Ueber Schaftsbury von der Tugend: an Born. Basel, 1785.

KIPPIS, Andrew. “Shaftesbury.” Biographia Britannica, 2nd edn (London, 1789), IV, 266-98.

[“Lw.”] “Characteristics […]”. Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek 109,1 (1792), 160-1. Review of 1790 Basel Characteristics.

OLSHAUSEN, D.J.W. “Eine Bemerkung die Kantische Philosophie betreffend.” Deutsches Magazin, 6 (1793), 1439-41.

[ANON.] Theokles: ein Gespräch über den Glauben an Gott (Leipzig, 1799).

back to top


HERDER, Johann Gottfried. “Shaftesburi: Principium der Tugend” and “Shaftesburi: Geist und Frohsinn.” Adrastea, 1 (1801), 223-41.

HERDER, Johann Gottfried: “John Locke: Die Freidenker.” Adrastea, 1 (1801), 203-17.

SAYOUS, Edouard. Les Déistes anglais et le Christianisme principalement depuis Toland jusqu’à Chubb (1696-1738). Paris, 1882.

LECHLER, Gotthard Victor. Geschichte des englischen Deismus. Stuttgart, 1841.

back to top

"To love the public, to study universal good, and to promote the interest of the whole world, as far as lies within our power, is surely the height of goodness."

The Shaftesbury Project